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T-28 Trojan Operating and Emergency Procedures – Transcript

T-28 Trojan Emergency and Operating Procedures

This is the transcript of the movie T-28 Trojan Operating and Emergency Procedures that is available for purchase and download.

The North American Aviation T-28 Trojan is a radial-engined military trainer aircraft used by the United States Air Force and the United States Navy beginning in the 1950s. Besides its use as a trainer, the T-28 was successfully employed as a counter-insurgency aircraft, primarily during the Vietnam War. It has continued in civilian use as an aerobatics and Warbird performer.

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00:00:00.000 –> 00:00:39.760

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Combat experience has proven that the formation is a more effective tactical unit than a single aircraft.

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As a professional naval aviator, you must be able to control your aircraft with precise accuracy for flight information with other aircraft.

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This film will cover two planes section, parade formation maneuvers.

00:01:06.806 –> 00:01:14.876
These maneuvers include the running rendezvous, parade position, parade terms,

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introductory cross under 180° break up in Rendezvous and lead. Change.

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The running rendezvous will save time and fuel when joining up after takeoff.

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If there is a left cross wind, the leader will line up on the right side of the runway in a right cross wind, the leader will line up on the left side.

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If the wind is calm or straight down the runway, the leader will take the far side,

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after receiving a thumbs up from you and clearance from the tower.

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The leader starts his takeoff roll When the leader is 500 ft down the runway, start your take off and follow him throughout the departure from the field.

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On climb out. The leader will maintain 140 knots and 30 of manifold pressure and depart the field.

00:02:27.710 –> 00:02:33.050
In accordance with course rules, check your engine instruments.

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An engine malfunction is most likely to occur following takeoff,

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when clear of the traffic pattern, turn inside of the leader to aid in the joint up, maintain 20 ft of step down throughout the rendezvous.

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Use the throttle to control the closure rate When stabilized beneath the starboard parade position, move up to 10 ft of step down,

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both parade position and step down will be covered later this completes the running rendezvous.

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If you fail to recognize a rapid closure rate, execute the under run procedure,

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reduce throttle and move as far to the right of the leader as necessary to gain control of the relative motion when the closure rate is under control, join up in parade position.

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There are five flight safety items you must keep in mind when making a running rendezvous.

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These are use proper take off interval.

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Follow your leader,

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check your engine instruments periodically,

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control your closure rate.

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No one used the under run procedure if necessary.

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Now let’s go over parade position in section parade formation.

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The wingman is in a fixed position on a 40 degree bearing from the leader, with approximately 65 ft between the corresponding parts of the aircraft Nose to tail distances. 18 ft.

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10ft is correct. Step down distance And two ft is proper wing tip clearance.

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If you are flying in a T. 28 Bravo identified bearing by aligning the tail, tie down ring with the trailing edge of the opposite wing tip.

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If your leader is in a T. 28 Charlie, align the tail scag with the trailing edge of the wing at the inboard static discharge line.

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Let’s fly a proper parade position. Align the tail tie down ring with the opposite wing tip.

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If you are behind bearing the tail reference, the tie down ring will be forward of the proper position on the wing.

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The bearing is controlled by power, add power to get back on bearing.

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When you were there. Set power to maintain a fixed position.

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If you get ahead of the bearing, reverse the procedure.

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Measures stepped down between corresponding parts of the aircraft.

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If you are on the proper 40° bearing line and have two ft of wanted clearance, Your step down is 10 ft.

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If you move away on the bearing line.

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You will have more than two ft of wing tip clearance and have more than 10 ft. Step down,

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as you move up the bearing line, your wing tip clearance and step down will decrease.

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To stay on the bearing line, control stepped down with elevator.

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If you can see sky between the tail reference and the wing, you have more than 10 ft of step down.

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Use back pressure on the steak to get you back up to the normal position When you cannot see the reference point on the leaders wing, you have less than 10 ft of step down.

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Use forward pressure on the stick to get you back down.

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Maintain wing tip clearance by coordinated use of ailerons and rudder determine wing tip clearance by having the correct site picture of the overall size of the leaders aircraft.

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The correct view of his inboard wing tip will help maintain two ft wing tip clearance.

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If you have too much clearance, make a slight turn toward the leader and level your wings,

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as you approach the proper clearance, make a coordinated heading change to align yourself with the leaders aircraft.

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If your wing tip clearances. To close, make a slight turn away from the leader, level your wings and when in the correct position align yourself with the leader.

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Control, nose to tail distance with power. You will be at the proper distance of 18 ft when you are on bearing and have the proper wing tip clearance and step down.

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If you fall behind, add power.

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When you reach the proper position, set power to maintain a fixed position.

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There are four flight safety items you should keep in mind when flying parade formation, maintain proper clearance at all times.

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Keep your eyes on the leader but do not stare.

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Periodically, check the engine instruments and warning lights.

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And most important, keep the relative motion under control.

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In parade turns, you must exercise greater control of relative motion to maintain a fixed position.

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The leader always clears the area first.

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Now he gives the turn signal.

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He pauses momentarily And rolls into a 30° angle of bank. The role is slow and at a constant rate, designed to reach the 30° angle of bank after 30° of turn.

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The turn is for a minimum of 180°.. During the turn, the leader maintains altitude, angle of bank and a constant throttle setting,

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making small, smooth corrections for any altitude loss or gain.

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He will start the roll out of the turn 30° prior to the new heading.

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All signals given by the leader must be repeated by you.

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As he starts his role into the turn away from you. Try to match his wings as he rolls.

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As you roll into the turn, rotate about your own longitudinal axis.

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Since your radius of turn is longer than the leaders, you will need to add power to maintain parade position,

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maintain the proper bearing by keeping the tail tie down and the wing tip aligned in the same vertical plane.

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Maintain proper step down by keeping the same amount of sky between the underside of the latest fuselage and the horizon as in straight and level flight.

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Upon completion of the turn, roll out with the leader rotating about your own longitudinal axis, reduce power as required to maintain bearing.

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Now let’s do a turn toward you.

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As the leader starts his role into you, keep the same view of his aircraft as in level flight.

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As you roll into the turn, rotate about the leaders longitudinal axis,

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since your radius of turn is shorter than his. In order to maintain step down, you will need to apply slight forward pressure on the stick simultaneously, reduce power to maintain bearing,

00:12:30.038 –> 00:12:36.848
to maintain the proper position. In this turn, keep the same view of the leaders aircraft as in level flight.

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As the leader rolls out of the term, rotate about the leaders longitudinal axis, apply back pressure and add power to stay on bearing, readjust power after you have stabilized straight and level flight,

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In parade turns, observe these three flight safety items maintain stepped down at all times.

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Use your controls in a coordinated fashion and keep the relative motion under control.

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Use the introductory cross under to change position from one side to the other. This keeps the formation flexible.

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The leader will clear the area,

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and give you the cross under signal.

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The leader will keep as plain as steady as possible while you are crossing under.

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To start the maneuver, increase your step down to 20 ft.

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He’s off a little power to maintain 18 ft of nose to tail distance.

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Now stabilize beneath the parade position. Note the amount of sky between the tail and wing. Reference points when you are well stabilised. Make a slight heading change and level your wings.

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The amount of heading change will determine the crossing rate.

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Use throttle is necessary to maintain 18 ft of nose to tail distance.

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Upon reaching the position directly below the new parade position, stabilize again,

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to move into parade position, add a little power and back pressure on the stick. Once in position, reset power.

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Remember these flight safety items When you execute cross unders, maintain 20 ft of step down so as to be clear of the leaders slipstream while crossing under and avoid rapid lateral motion.

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The 180° breakup and rendezvous establishes an interval between aircraft and provides practice in basic rendezvous principles.

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The sun should be anywhere on your left in the early morning or in the late afternoon, The leader breaks away in a 45 degree bank turn.

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Start your turn when the leader is 30° ahead of your wing, tip, Kiss off and break into 45° of bank using the same rate of role as the leader.

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Upon reaching the reciprocal heading, the leader will roll out smartly Roll out of the break turn in column with the leader.

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With an interval of 800 to 1000 ft, the leader will return to thumbs up air speed and brake altitude as quickly as possible,

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attain thumbs up air speed and the leaders altitude are slightly above to avoid the leaders slipstream.

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When the leader has reached the proper airspeed and altitude, he will count six seconds,

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and roll smartly into a left turn using 20° of bank as soon as the leader is slightly left of your center line, turnout of column.

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Using a 30 to 45 degree angle of bank Until the leader is 45° to the right of your nose.

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As you continue check altitude with the leader, check air speed and reset throttle.

00:16:45.549 –> 00:16:56.689
Approximate the leaders angle of bank until you intercept the 240 degree rendezvous bearing, maintain this bearing and gradually take step down.

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When you approach 18 ft, nose to tail, leave the bearing and join up on or slightly inside the leaders radius of term with 18ft nose to tail and 20 ft of step down,

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pause momentarily.

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And cross under to the parade position.

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Let’s go over it again. one. The leader has cleared the area.

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He will give the break up in rendezvous signal, You must acknowledge the signal.

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The leader will clear the area again. Kiss off and break away in a 45 degree angle of bank roll, with the same rate of role as the leader into a 45 degree bank turn,

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maintain this bank and break altitude throughout the turn.

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After turning 180°,, the leader will roll out smartly adding power to regain thumbs up air speed and brake altitude,

00:18:14.307 –> 00:18:23.417
add power To a maximum of 30 manifold pressure to attain thumbs up air speed and the leaders altitude.

00:18:25.107 –> 00:18:28.317
Roll out of your brake turn in column with the leader.

00:18:30.307 –> 00:18:39.727
As soon as the leader has regained thumbs up air speed and brake altitude, he counts six seconds and rolls into a left turn using 20° of bank.

00:18:41.007 –> 00:18:48.117
When you see him slightly left of your center line, start your turn using 30-45° of bank,

00:18:50.007 –> 00:18:59.327
Continue turning inside the leader, gradually shallowing your angle of bank to place the leader 45° to the right of your nose.

00:18:59.907 –> 00:19:05.117
Check airspeed and altitude level with the leader. He should be on the horizon.

00:19:07.007 –> 00:19:13.217
Now, approximate the leaders angle of bank and intercept the 240 degree rendezvous bearing.

00:19:15.307 –> 00:19:24.927
The reference point for correct bearing is a wing tip width of sky between the leaders, right wing tip and the leading edge of his vertical stabilizer.

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Maintain bearing and gradually take 20 ft of step down.

00:19:32.707 –> 00:19:45.727
When you approach 18 ft, nose to tail. Leave the bearing and join up on or slightly inside the leaders radius of turn with 18 ft, nose to tail and 20 ft of step down.

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Use power as necessary.

00:19:49.607 –> 00:19:55.617
After pausing momentarily in this joint opposition, execute the cross under to parade position.

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There are three flight safety items to keep in mind during breakup and rendezvous practice.

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Never lose sight of the leader, never stopped directly beneath the leader, and no, and use the under run procedure whenever applicable.

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To keep a formation flexible, The leader must be able to pass the lead prior to passing the lead, the leader will always form a right echelon.

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Once the wingman has accepted the lead, the leader will exchange positions with his wingman.

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The old leader makes a coordinated heading change to establish 20 ft of wing tip clearance. He will maintain 18 ft of tail to nose and move down to 20 ft of step down.

00:20:49.803 –> 00:20:57.323
He moves straight after stopping with 18 ft, nose to tail clearance, maintaining 20 ft of step down.

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He then crosses under,

00:21:03.003 –> 00:21:08.623
to the starboard parade position. Let’s assume that you are the old leader.

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Once your wing man accepts the lead, do not take your eyes from him.

00:21:20.603 –> 00:21:34.823
Make an easy heading change to the left to establish 20 ft of wing tip clearance, reduce power slightly as you move down to 20 ft of step down while maintaining 18 ft of tail to nose distance ahead of the new leader.

00:21:38.903 –> 00:21:46.013
Reduce power slightly and move straight after stopping. was 18 ft. nose to tail.

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Add power to hold nose to tail and execute across under to the starboard parade possession.

00:22:15.103 –> 00:22:23.813
The single most important flight safety item to keep in mind when changing the lead, is never take your eyes from the new leader.

00:22:24.203 –> 00:22:26.213
Once he accepts the lead,

00:22:28.903 –> 00:22:34.113
the secret of good formation flying, his team work as leader.

00:22:34.123 –> 00:22:43.993
You steady, deliberate, smooth control movements for all maneuvers as wingman follow every move of your leader.

00:22:44.003 –> 00:22:47.873
Teamwork will result in accurate formation, fly.

00:22:47.760 –> 00:23:33.200

00:23:33.043 –> 00:23:39.703
28, like all naval aircraft, has been tested, proven as to performance and reliability.

00:23:40.483 –> 00:23:51.503
However, it is always within the realm of possibility that engine failure or other situations may occur, making it necessary for you to make an emergency landing,

00:23:53.683 –> 00:23:58.603
Under such emergencies. There are certain guidelines for handling the T 28.

00:24:01.583 –> 00:24:07.903
When coupled with good judgment, they will assure maximum safety for yourself and your aircraft.

00:24:08.483 –> 00:24:11.693
This film will show you what these guidelines are.

00:24:16.583 –> 00:24:22.303
Engine failures are separated into two categories high altitude and low altitude.

00:24:25.783 –> 00:24:31.093
The emergency landing pattern for a high altitude engine failure has two checkpoints.

00:24:31.483 –> 00:24:39.403
First, the high key at 2500 ft, actual altitude above the intended point of landing, headed up wind.

00:24:45.683 –> 00:24:51.563
Second, low key at between 1600 and 1800 ft, actual altitude.

00:24:51.723 –> 00:24:57.063
One wing tip distance, a beam of the intended point of landing headed down wind.

00:25:00.483 –> 00:25:02.903
Upon the high altitude engine failure,

00:25:05.583 –> 00:25:08.493
Transition to a 130 not dissent.

00:25:10.983 –> 00:25:15.093
Check gear flaps and speed break up,

00:25:17.683 –> 00:25:23.393
and cowl flaps closed, turned toward a suitable field.

00:25:27.683 –> 00:25:34.533
Place mixture and rich and make your systematic check of the cockpit to determine the cause of the emergency,

00:25:36.683 –> 00:25:45.023
attempt an air start. If altitude permits. If unsuccessful, place prop control in full decrease.

00:25:45.983 –> 00:25:47.693
Make a forced landing report,

00:25:50.383 –> 00:25:58.163
Plan to arrive at high key with 2500 ft of actual altitude Air Speed 130 knots,

00:26:00.083 –> 00:26:12.703
At Hai Kee, start a 180° turn in either direction toward low key Transition to the 110 not descending attitude and begin the landing checklist.

00:26:19.229 –> 00:26:32.739
At low key a beam, the intended point of landing between 1600 and 1800 ft of actual altitude. Your landing checklist should be complete except for canopy flaps and wheels.

00:26:34.929 –> 00:26:40.589
Lower the landing gear on final only if you’re landing on a prepared surface,

00:26:43.129 –> 00:26:52.249
At about the 90° position. Lower half flaps, Adjust the approach to allow a long straightaway of 1800 – 2000 ft.

00:26:57.329 –> 00:27:02.339
Lower full flaps in the straightaway as necessary to hit the point of intended landing,

00:27:04.629 –> 00:27:10.649
blow open the canopy and turned battery, gas and mixture off prior to touchdown.

00:27:15.529 –> 00:27:28.949
Again after engine failure at high altitude attempt an air start If unsuccessful, hit high key and roll into the 180° turn toward low key.

00:27:33.029 –> 00:27:44.339
Transition to the 110. Not descending attitude Plan your descent to have 1600 to 1800 ft actual altitude at low key.

00:27:52.971 –> 00:27:58.311
Your landing checklist should be complete except for canopy wheels and flaps.

00:28:00.371 –> 00:28:03.091
Lower one half flaps at about the 90,

00:28:05.871 –> 00:28:10.671
Adjust your approach to allow 1800-2000 ft of straight away.

00:28:10.681 –> 00:28:15.291
On final went on final turn off battery.

00:28:17.371 –> 00:28:18.091

00:28:20.971 –> 00:28:21.761
and mixture,

00:28:24.071 –> 00:28:38.321
lower. Full flaps is necessary to hit the point of intended landing, lower the landing gear only for a prepared surface, blow open the canopy prior to touchdown.

00:28:43.371 –> 00:28:52.691
The prime consideration and handling a low altitude engine failure is to maintain flying speed until contact with the ground.

00:28:53.871 –> 00:29:02.891
Your immediate reaction in this situation must be to assume a safe flight attitude and to retract the gear. If it is not up.

00:29:07.171 –> 00:29:17.691
Choose the best available landing site governed by your speed and altitude check, harness locked and if time allows, make a forced landing report.

00:29:19.471 –> 00:29:27.391
Use flaps is necessary, blow open the canopy and turn battery, gas and mixture off prior to touchdown.

00:29:33.171 –> 00:29:41.911
You have seen the procedures for handling an in flight emergency. You will practice these emergency procedures under simulated conditions.

00:29:43.571 –> 00:29:52.621
Mhm one. You have learned them. You will have gained the confidence necessary to see you safely through an actual emergency landing.

00:29:52.560 –> 00:30:29.520

00:30:29.362 –> 00:30:36.542
28 is a reliable aircraft which you can normally expect to get into the air and back on the ground safely.

00:30:38.302 –> 00:30:45.112
However conditions may dictate that going over the side or bailout will be the only way to save your life.

00:30:46.802 –> 00:30:51.662
This bailout decision is yours to make and yours alone.

00:30:53.102 –> 00:31:07.922
Generally speaking, this decision of bailout maybe due to emergency conditions such as extreme loss of control, engine failure at night over rough terrain, an uncontrollable fire or other circumstances.

00:31:10.502 –> 00:31:17.822
If you do bailout, you must know the proper use of your flight safety equipment and must know bailout procedures.

00:31:18.902 –> 00:31:26.742
This film will cover personal flight equipment, your parachute and bailout procedures.

00:31:30.802 –> 00:31:43.442
The personal flight equipment which you must wear on all flights consists of a complete set of underwear, a properly fitting clean flight suit, identification tags.

00:31:48.002 –> 00:31:54.752
A survival knife which is carried in a pocket not susceptible to snagging on the aircraft during emergency exit,

00:31:56.802 –> 00:32:05.522
and ankle high lace up flight boots. Check your personal oxygen mask for general condition before all hops.

00:32:09.802 –> 00:32:15.522
With all your personal flight gear, including your hard hat. Check out your parachute.

00:32:17.702 –> 00:32:21.722
If you were on an over water flight, you would wear a MaE West.

00:32:23.102 –> 00:32:32.122
Two types are in general use the mark to a yellow color and the mark to a here, which is international orange.

00:32:34.302 –> 00:32:36.612
Both types must be pre flighted.

00:32:38.702 –> 00:32:40.712
Check the light for operation.

00:32:44.002 –> 00:32:50.212
Be sure the vest has signal flares, shark repellent and I markers.

00:32:53.502 –> 00:33:00.422
See that the co two cylinder is properly seated. Make sure the lanyard safety wire is attached.

00:33:05.102 –> 00:33:06.552
Inspect both sides.

00:33:11.202 –> 00:33:12.612
And re snapped the covers.

00:33:15.702 –> 00:33:19.122
Check the oral inflation tube for proper functioning.

00:33:26.946 –> 00:33:33.466
When checking out your parachute, inspect it for its condition. Check the elastic bands on the cover.

00:33:38.146 –> 00:33:47.676
See that the rip cord cable is free in its housing. Check pins for proper seating and the safety tie on the bottom pin.

00:33:50.846 –> 00:33:51.956
Button up the cover.

00:33:59.946 –> 00:34:08.666
The parachute log should indicate that the chute has had a visual inspection in the last 10 days and has been repacked in the last 90 days.

00:34:12.246 –> 00:34:19.466
Be sure the D. Ring is firmly seated in its pocket. Check all harness disconnect.

00:34:31.946 –> 00:34:34.286
Now let’s go out to the t 28.

00:34:37.846 –> 00:34:45.956
Never lay your parachute on the ground or use it as a pillow. Should it ever get wet? Return it to the parallel left and get another.

00:34:49.246 –> 00:34:51.806
Put on your properly fitting flight gloves.

00:35:02.946 –> 00:35:11.656
After completing your preflight check of the aircraft, Put on your parachute and make certain that the harness fits you snugly.

00:35:32.946 –> 00:35:36.756
After you have ceded yourself in the cockpit, Readjust the harness.

00:35:43.446 –> 00:35:49.766
After starting the engine, Put on the last item of personal flight equipment. your hard hat,

00:35:52.446 –> 00:35:54.086
adjust the nape properly.

00:35:57.246 –> 00:35:58.656
Tighten the chin strap.

00:36:01.646 –> 00:36:09.956
Your visor must be down and clean. The hard hat will have one of several quick disconnect fittings for the oxygen mask.

00:36:12.246 –> 00:36:13.866
You are now ready to taxi.

00:36:30.421 –> 00:36:41.131
Your chances of being forced to bail out of the T. 28. Our remote, but if you ever have to bail out, you must know how your life depends on it.

00:36:42.121 –> 00:36:50.731
Before getting into the specific bailout procedures, let’s consider three factors altitude airspeed and attitude.

00:36:51.621 –> 00:36:54.881
You have the best chance for survival and minimum injury.

00:36:54.901 –> 00:37:05.341
If you bail out early at the highest possible altitude, consideration is a personal decision requiring thought by every pilot.

00:37:07.521 –> 00:37:13.361
Optimum air speed. For bailout from the T 28 is 100 to 120 knots.

00:37:15.121 –> 00:37:17.941
A. Level attitude is best for bailout.

00:37:19.821 –> 00:37:32.731
Your decision to bail out must be arrived at considering terrain, weather and condition of the aircraft, all of which you must evaluate.

00:37:33.921 –> 00:37:41.041
Once you have made the decision to leave your aircraft go, a delay may mean your life.

00:37:43.321 –> 00:37:49.491
Let’s go over the basic T. 28 bailout procedure using the ground trainer to demonstrate the steps,

00:37:51.021 –> 00:37:58.741
adjust your seat to the full up position, disconnect the radio cord, tuck it into the flight suit,

00:37:59.721 –> 00:38:09.841
release the safety belt and shoulder harness, throw the straps into the slipstream, PL one hand on the Glare Shield and the other on the back of the seat,

00:38:10.921 –> 00:38:16.441
now back into a crouching position as you turn to face the starboard wing,

00:38:18.221 –> 00:38:24.151
place both hands flat against the fuselage and some assault yourself out of the aircraft.

00:38:27.460 –> 00:38:32.880
Before you bail out of the T 28 broadcast a mayday report. If you have time.

00:38:33.960 –> 00:38:45.680
Normally bailout to starboard side due to the slipstream, Slow your aircraft to between 100 and 120 knots, blow open the canopy.

00:38:49.460 –> 00:38:54.580
Trim for level flight and if possible, head toward an uninhabited area.

00:38:59.160 –> 00:39:02.180
Raise your seat to the full up position,

00:39:04.460 –> 00:39:08.180
disconnect radio chords, tuck them in your flight suit.

00:39:08.960 –> 00:39:18.970
If you have time, turn off the fuel ignition and dC power switches, release your harness and go.

00:39:25.060 –> 00:39:32.540
In a spin, Always bailout to the outside of the spin in this case to the left.

00:39:32.590 –> 00:39:38.580
If the spin is inverted gravity will pull you out of the cockpit when you release your safety belt.

00:39:42.860 –> 00:39:45.960
Bailout is your decision? Yeah.

00:39:46.660 –> 00:39:57.640
When you know you have to go follow your bailout procedures and you will have an excellent chance to remain alive.

00:39:57.520 –> 00:41:46.533

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